Deep learning applied to the analysis of dissolved carbon dioxide in coastal areas of the Balearic Sea

Tiwari, Akshay (Advisors: Matias, Manuel A.; Hendriks, Iris. E.)
Master Thesis (2022)

This work studies the changes in the sea surface dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2 (diss.)) at the
Estación de Investigación Costera del Faro de Cap Salines, a pristine site at the Southeastern
tip of Mallorca (GPS 3.05457°E, 39.26552°N). More specifically, the dependence of CO2 (diss.)
on a number of recorded parameters like atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 (atm.)) and
temperature rise, which may be the result of direct or increased human activities, is uncovered
by the modelling of CO2 (diss.). This modelling of CO2 (diss.), is done with Deep Learning (DL)
methods applied to a relatively small ecological dataset and then these DL methods are
compared to each other. This work also shows and generalises how DL methods can give
reasonable results when applied to small tabular datasets in general. Along with the analysis
of different DL methods (Deep Symbolic Regression, Permutation Convolutions and Self-
Attention), an architecture based on different methods (Self-Attention, Mish activation
function, Ranger optimiser and Learning rate finder), which are selected after reviewing and
testing ideas from the literature, is also presented in this work.

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