Spectral Structure and Doublon Dissociation in the Two-Particle Non-Hermitian Hubbard Model
Annalen der Physik 535, 2300291 (1-11) (2023)
Strongly-correlated systems in non-Hermitian models are an emergent area of research. Herein, a non-Hermitian Hubbard model is considered, where the single-particle hopping amplitudes on the lattice are not reciprocal, and provide exact analytical results of the spectral structure in the two-particle sector of Hilbert space under different boundary conditions. The analysis unveils some interesting spectral and dynamical effects of purely non-Hermitian nature and that deviate from the usual scenario found in the single-particle regime. Specifically, a spectral phase transition of the Mott-Hubbard band on the infinite lattice is predicted as the interaction energy is increased above a critical value, from an open to a closed loop in complex energy plane, and the dynamical dissociation of doublons, i.e., instability of two-particle bound states, in the bulk of the lattice, with a sudden revival of the doublon state when the two particles reach the lattice edge. Particle dissociation observed in the bulk of the lattice is a clear manifestation of non-Hermitian dynamics arising from the different lifetimes of single-particle and two-particle states, whereas the sudden revival of the doublon state at the boundaries is a striking burst edge dynamical effect peculiar to non-Hermitian systems with boundary-dependent energy spectra, here predicted for the first time for correlated particles.